High, rugged mountains in the west, barren, salty desert in the eastern region, a narrow, fertile strip borders of the Caspian Sea is in north, and lowlands rim the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south, all make this country a special and unique destination to visit. Iran has a long history of scholarship that has created a rich culture of art, literature, poetry, music, cuisine, and architecture. Ancient Iranian thinkers wrote influential texts on philosophy and medicine, and it was an Iranian mathematician who invented algebra. Iran’s universities are among the most respected in the Middle East.
Iran is one of the oldest nations in the world, with a history dating back tens of thousands of years. The country’s first great city, Susa, was built on the central plateau around 3200 B.C. Iran is historically known as Persia. The Persian Empire was one of the greatest empires of the ancient world with a series of imperial dynasties.